Surah No 48: At-Fat-h
Number of Ayats: Twenty nine
Meaning of the name: It takes its name from the theme of the surah which is the great victory that Allah granted to Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) and the Muslims with the Truce of Hudaibiyah.
Summary: This is a Madni surah. Great emphasis is laid on the fact the true believers always receive Allah’s help and they will not only be successful in this world but also in the Hereafter. While those who turn away from fighting for the Cause of Allah will be the ones who will suffer. It is also mentioned that the blind, the lame and the ill are exempted from Jihad but they must render whatever service that they can and they will be rewarded equally.
However the surah revolves chiefly around the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, which has immense historical significance therefore it is important to summarize it briefly:
For the past six years no Muslim had been allowed to perform Hajj or Umrah. Then Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) saw a dream in which he and his companions were all performing Umrah. This has been mentioned in ayat no. 27 of this surah. Therefore for this purpose he undertook a journey from Madina to Makkah and asked all Muslims to join him. Though the response was very good there were some who were cowardly and stayed behind. Therefore around 1500 accompanied the Holy Prophet (SAW) on the perilous journey.
The Quraish were adamant that they would not allow them to enter Makkah. Time and time again they sent messengers asking the Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) to give up the idea. Finally the Holy Prophet sent Hazrat Usman (RA) as a messenger that they had only come for a pilgrimage, shortly afterwards it was rumored that Hazrat Usman (RA) had been killed. This left them with no choice but to prepare for an attack even though they were unarmed. On this occasion Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) gathered his companions and asked them to take a solemn pledge that they would fight till death. This is known as “Bait ur Rizwan”
Later on this news proved to be false as he returned and then there was no war. Instead a treaty was signed with the Quraish. Initially all the companions felt rather crestfallen on the terms of the truce, for they did not possess the foresight that Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) did that this would be a great success for Islam. It was on their return to Madina that this surah was sent down, and then the Holy Prophet (SAW) gathered them and said “Today such a thing has been sent down to me, which is more valuable to me than the world and what it contains.” Then he recited the surah.
The major outcomes of Treaty were:
- For the first time the Islamic State was given recognition.
- By allowing the Muslims to perform their pilgrimage in Makkah the following year suggested that Quraish admitted that Islam was a religion.
- Due to the 10 year no-war pact Islam spread throughout Arabia in such a manner that within two years of the Treaty, the highest number of people reverted to Islam, more than they had in 19 years. Also later on when Quraish violated the treaty, Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) invaded Makkah with an army of 10,000 men.
- The Holy Prophet (SAW) had the opportunity to set up and reinforce the Islamic rule and law, turning the Islamic society into a thriving civilization.
Surah No 49: Al-Hujurat
Number of Ayats: Eighteen
Meaning of the name: It takes its name from ayat no. 4 where the word ‘hujurat’ occurs which means “the dwellings.”
Summary: This is a Madni surah. In the first five verses the etiquettes that should have been observed in the presence of the Holy Prophet (SAW) are stated. Then we are warned not to believe in all news that reaches our ears; unless and until we have validated the source. Also if two Muslim groups are involved in a dispute, then it is the duty of the others to make peace between them, however if one of the groups crosses all limits then they must be fought with, until they comply with Allah’s teachings. The believers belong to one brotherhood, therefore must uphold that as well as live in peace and harmony. But everything should be done fairly so that no injustice is done to anyone. Furthermore we are told to stay away from those ill practices which contribute greatly to the corruption and degeneration of a society. They are as follows: 1) make fun of others, especially in a hurtful manner which is usually through taunting and sarcasm 2) call others by nicknames 3) being suspicious and doubting others 4) prying in other people’s affairs 5) backbiting.
Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) said “Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales, and do not look for others fault’s, and do not do spying on one another, and do not practice Najsh (means to offer a high price for something in order to allure another customer who is interested in the thing) and do not be jealous of one another, and do not hate one another, and do not desert (stop talking to) one another. And O Allah’s worshippers! Be brothers!”
In ayat no.13 the reason why this world is in constant turmoil has been beautifully stated, “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).”
Surah No 50: Qaf
Number of Ayats: Forty five
Meaning of the name: It is named after the alphabet ‘Qaf’ with which the surah begins.
Summary: This is a Makki surah. Traditions show that the Holy Prophet (SAW) recited this surah always on Eid as well as in the Friday sermons and often at Fajr. This means that he had attached great importance to the surah because the theme revolves around the Day of Resurrection and the Hereafter. For the unbelievers it was difficult to fathom how it was possible for a human to be resurrected after thousands of years, but those who have pure faith in Islam, it is not difficult for them to believe as they know that Allah Almighty has the power to do anything. He knows where every particle is scattered on the earth, and on His one command every particle will come together and take a human form.
We are under severe misunderstanding if we think that we can do whatever we wish in this world. The truth is that every thought however deep, every word that we utter and every deed that we perform is known to Allah as he is closer to us than our own jugular vein, something we unfortunately do not acknowledge. Also there are two angels each sitting on one side, who are recording all our thoughts, words and actions both good and bad. The Trumpet will be blown to announce that the time of Judgment has arrived, and then this record will be produced. Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) said “The deeds of the following three persons are not recorded by the pen: 1) a sleeping person till he wakes up 2) a child till he reaches teens 3) An insane person till he becomes sane.”
It is stressed that we should remember Allah all the time, especially the appointed times of five prayers. It is also pointed out that although Nawafil are not mandatory they are still an important part of prayer. We should glorify, praise and magnify Him by reciting ‘Subhan Allah’, ‘Alhumdu lillah’ and ‘Allahu Akbar’. In the end we are told that when there will be a mighty Blast it would signify that the Day of Resurrection has come and everyone will come hurrying forward from everywhere.